BOTOX® is a brand name of Botulinum toxin Type A. It is widely used for treatment of facial wrinkles and many medical conditions. The toxin blocks the release of neurotransmitter acetylcholine responsible for inducing muscle contractions. A muscle is weakened or paralyzed and wrinkle area is immobilized. In just a few days wrinkles become hardly visible and in a few weeks disappear while new wrinkles are not formed for a few months after Botox® injections.
Facial wrinkles are caused by different emotions that we express using same muscles time and again. Contraction of the muscle that raises eyebrows creates forehead creases. Contraction of the muscles in the glabella area leads to appearance of deep vertical wrinkles called frown lines. Contraction of orbital muscle forms the so called “crow’s feet” wrinkles in the outer corners of the eyes.
Currently virtually all types of wrinkles can be treated in both surgical and non-surgical ways. Botox® injection is an extremely popular non-surgical treatment reducing signs of ageing without damaging side effects.
The procedure of injection is relatively simple to perform and takes only a few minutes. Botox® is injected with a fine needle into specific muscles with only slight discomfort. First results can be seen in as little as 24 hours and it takes about five days for the process to complete. On an average Botox® results can last six months though it may vary from three to twelve months and depends on individual physiological characteristics.
Botox® injection is a safe, simple and effective method of blocking excessive activity of mimetic muscles of the upper part of the face that are responsible for forming wrinkles. Botox® also delays forming of intradermal folds and prolongs the effect of collagen anti-wrinkle injections.
Contraindications to botulinum toxin type A are: (a) hypersensitivity to any component
of the treatment; (b) generalized movement disorders; (c) intake of aminoglycoside antibiotics or spectinomycin. Safety of Botox® use during pregnancy or breastfeeding is not yet proved. Therefore we consider pregnancy and breastfeeding as a
contraindication to the use of this treatment.
Conditions treated by Botox®
Except anti-wrinkle usage Botox® has many therapeutic applications as can be seen from the list below:
- Uncontrollable blinking disrupting vision up to a state that can be compared to blindness.
- Strabismus means misaligned eyes caused by imbalance of oculomotorius muscles functioning. Can cause diplopia and other unpleasant sensations.
- Hemifacial spasm
- A condition of facial nerve causing uncontrollable muscles spasm on one side of
- Use of the toxin in stammering treatment is based on the fact that excessive activity of certain muscles contributes in some way to speech disturbance. Some studies have already proved effectiveness of such treatment method. However further research needs to be conducted in this area.
- Botulinum toxin can help reduce spasticity developing in a paralyzed arm or leg. This treatment is effective if started before muscle contractures develop.
- Esophageal achalasia
- Pathological condition that develops when normal relaxation of muscles of the lower part of esophagus is disrupted and the muscles cannot push bolus down the esophagus, which is normally achieved by undulated contractions of its walls (this process is called peristalsis).
- Some scientific publications inform that botulinum toxin injections help avoid a surgery on severe forms of spinal curvatur
- A condition that causes severe contractions in one or several parts of the body. Dystonia can be generalized or focal (when only one part of the body is affected). For example, dystonia can be in muscles of neck, lower jaw, larynx, arms or legs. Spasms result in disturbances of phonation and body posture, difficulties in ambulation, etc.
- Cerebral palsy
- Botulinum toxin injections can facilitate ambulation for some cerebral palsy patients. This disease makes leg movements difficult because of pathological contractions of certain muscle groups. Injection helps relax muscles affected by spasm and bring their length closer to normal by stretching. In case of infantile cerebral palsy such measures can provide certain degree of growth of the affected extremities that is otherwise impossible because of formation of muscle contractures in the extremities.
- Rectum fissures
- Chronic forms can lead to protracted constipations.
- Pathological state that is caused by involuntary spasms of vaginal muscles and can impede coitus. This disorder occurs among women with frequency of 1/200.